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September Scrutiny; A Quarterly Review. December Scrutiny; A Quarterly Review. Vol Ii. March Scrutiny; A Quarterly Review. Hardback In Three Volumes. Hardback hardback Hardback Translation By I. Hardbacks Hardback Hardback, J. Hardback Hardback, 2 volumes Tauchnitz Hardback Volume 1. Cantatore de Frank, Norma M. Guillermo Cieza, H. Planeta ed. Green, Dra. Herrera, Fortunato L. Laprida, Mario H. Luna, Felix dir.
Pastor, Reynaldo A. Salvatore, R. Scott Berg, A. Smith, David B. Wiesenthal, M. Venezuela la revolucion por otros medios? Lindos Regalos Cosas para Armar! Abril Presencia Del Mas Alla? Que hago? Gai - El Quinto Poder? Europa, Cine II. Europa, Cine Cine II.
Por Que? A La Salida. La Tinaja. Son una epidemia? REM los sueos son una epidemia? Arribas las manos! Pacto, s. La Empresa se hunde y estamos reunidos Socorro! La empresa se hunde y estamos reunidos Socorro! Ao 3, Num. Como ser Padre Hoy Filosofia del lenguaje Movimientos sociales. Experiencias historicas. Estado Mayor General. Seix Y Barral Hnos, S. De Lamartine A. Ballantyne, R. Baschet, Ludovic Bauchot, R. Chandon, G. De Lamartine, A. Ramuz, C. Raspail, F. Villenave, G. Chio, Cos etc. Lucienne 2. Le Dieu Des Corps 3. Quand Le Navire Tapa Dura Solo El Tomo 5.
Tapa Dura 1. Le Notaire Du Havre 2. Le Jardin Des Betes Sauvages 3. Vue De La Terre Promise 4. Le Desert De Bievres 6. Les Maitres 7. Cecile Parmi Nous 8. Le Combat Contre Les Ombres 9. Suzanne Et Les Jeunes Hommes Tapa Dura The capture of Toledo in added New Castile to the crown's territories, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa heralded the Moors' loss of most of southern Spain.
See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree ; the Muslim Kingdom of Granada was conquered in , formally passing to the Crown of Castile in that year. Since it lacks modern day official recognition, Castile no longer has defined borders; the area consisted of the Kingdom of Castile. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre , the definition of what constituted Castile began to change, its historical capital was Burgos.
Since there have been two nominally Castilian autonomous communities in Spain, incorporating the toponym in their own official names: Castile and Leon and Castile-La Mancha. A third, the Community of Madrid is regarded as part of Castile, by dint of its geographic enclosure within the entity and, above all, by the statements of its Statute of Autonomy, since its autonomic process originated in national interest and not in popular disaffection with Castile.
Other territories in the former Crown of Castile are left out for different reasons. In fact, the territory of the Castilian Crown comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon , Balearic Islands and Catalonia , all belonging to the former Crown of Aragon, Navarre , offshoot of the older Kingdom of the same name. The Leonese region, part of the Crown of Castile from , was from medieval times considered a region in its own right on a par with the two Castiles, appeared on maps alongside Old Castile until the two joined as one region - Castile and Leon - in the s.
In , Spain was further subdivided into administrative provinces. See Names given to the Spanish language; the Castilian Kingdom and people were considered to be the main architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Moors and of marriages, wars and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in , the Castilian language was the only one with official status in the Spanish state. Both are located in the state of New York. He was the son of his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in , several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in Once Alfonso was declared adult in , he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power, his achievements include solving the conquest of Algeciras.
After the death of the infantes John and Peter in , Juan Manuel and Juan el Tuerto split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency as it was being looted by moors and the rebellious nobility. As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies. Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile , but he could be bloody in his methods, he killed for reasons of state without any form of trial.
He neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal , indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman , who bore him ten children. This set Peter an example. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of , at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar , only averted a desperate struggle with Peter, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far. Alfonso died in the night of 25—26 March Alfonso XI first had the union annulled two years later, his second marriage, in , was to his double first cousin Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal.
They had: Ferdinand. King Alfonso was not tall but well proportioned, he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hannay, D.. In Chisholm, Hugh. Cambridge University Press. Complutense University of Madrid. ISSN Medieval Iberia : an encyclopedia, Ed. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead , Routledge , Travel literature The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, travel memoirs.
One early travel memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias , a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD. In the early modern period, James Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides helped shape travel memoir as a genre. Early examples of travel literature include Pausanias' Description of Greece in the 2nd century CE, the Journey Through Wales and Description of Wales by Gerald of Wales , the travel journals of Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Battuta , both of whom recorded their travels across the known world in detail; the travel genre was a common genre in medieval Arabic literature.
Travel literature became popular during the Song dynasty of medieval China ; the genre was called'travel record literature', was written in narrative, prose and diary style. Travel literature authors such as Fan Chengda and Xu Xiake incorporated a wealth of geographical and topographical information into their writing, while the'daytrip essay' Record of Stone Bell Mountain by the noted poet and statesman Su Shi presented a philosophical and moral argument as its central purpose.
One of the earliest known records of taking pleasure in travel, of travelling for the sake of travel and writing about it, is Petrarch's ascent of Mount Ventoux in He states, his companions who stayed at the bottom he called frigida incuriositas. He wrote about his climb, making allegorical comparisons between climbing the mountain and his own moral progress in life. Michault Taillevent , a poet for the Duke of Burgundy , travelled through the Jura Mountains in and recorded his personal reflections, his horrified reaction to the sheer rock faces, the terrifying thunderous cascades of mountain streams.
Antoine de la Sale , author of Petit Jehan de Saintre, climbed to the crater of a volcano in the Lipari Islands in , leaving us with his impressions. In the midth century, Gilles le Bouvier, in his Livre de la description des pays, gave us his reason to travel and write: Because many people of diverse nations and countries delight and take pleasure, as I have done in times past, in seeing the world and things therein, because many wish to know without going there, others wish to see, go, travel, I have begun this little book.
In , Richard Hakluyt published a foundational text of the travel literature genre. In the 18th Century, travel literature was known as the book of travels, which consisted of maritime diaries. In 18th century Britain every famous writer worked in the travel literature form. Captain James Cook's diaries were the equivalent of today's best sellers Alexander von Humboldt's Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America, during the years — published in French, was translated to multiple languages and influenced naturalists, including Charles Darwin.
Other examples of travel literature include accounts of the Grand Tour. Aristocrats and others with money and leisure time travelled Europe to learn about the art and architecture of its past. Travel books come in styles ranging from the documentary, to the literary, as well as the journalistic, from memoir to the humorous to the serious.
They are associated with tourism and include guide books. Travel writing may be found in periodicals, on blogs and in books, it has been produced by a variety of writers, including travelers, military officers, explorers, pilgrims and physical scientists and migrants. Englishmen Eric Newby , H. Travel literature intersects with essay writing, as in V. Naipaul's India: A Wounded Civilization , whose trip became the occasion for extended observations on a nation and people; this is the case in Rebecca West's work on Yugoslavia , Black Lamb and Grey Falcon.
Sometimes a writer will settle into a locality for an extended period, absorbing a sense of place while continuing to observe with a travel writer's sensibility. Travel and nature writing. Through the influence of his father, Miguel de Zurita, physician to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor , he entered the public service as magistrate at Barbastro , in was appointed assistant-secretary of the Inquisition.
In Zurita was nominated official chronicler of the Kingdom of Aragon, in Philip II of Spain attached him as secretary to the council of the Inquisition, delegating to him the conduct of all matters sufficiently important to require the king's signature. Zurita's style is somewhat crabbed and dry. Hillgarth and Theory, Vol. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Fortanet online. Revision History. Kingdom of Aragon. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Depiction in an illumination of Froissart 's chronicles, c. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto. The German Hyghalmen Roll , c. Arms of the Duke of Richmond c. Coat of Arms of Liptov County in Slovakia. Castillian folk dancers from Zamarramala , Segovia.
Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved epic poem in Castilian language. For instance, in there were 74 weekly Hispanic publications in the USA. Today there are weeklies. One of the real strengths of the NAHP is that by working together we make everyone stronger. Hispanic Print is different than Mainstream Media and researching those points is important to keeping our industry strong. Come join, learn, grow. How you can help:. Thank you, and God bless you. The Anti-Christian action seemed to appear and grow rapidly in the s.
I was teaching locally and remembered my surprise when activists decided that Christmas carols in public schools were a violation of the separation of state and church. In the last 50 or so years, the issue has escalated with the removal of the nativity scene in some public places, and continued with the removal of Bibles in veteran hospitals, and not allowing soldiers in combat to pray in groups.
Compounding the frightening conclusions is the fact that people of the Christian faith have been the most targeted religious group in the world since Violence, murder and subversion of open practice have spread to nearly every corner of the globe. Christians are under attack like never before in modern history. Here in Orange County, California, instead of Chicano studies, multi-ethnic studies grew.
In general, most immigrants were of a Christian faith. However, the entrance into United States of huge numbers of members of the Islamic faith has created problems in all aspects of life in the United States. As communities have welcomed Muslims into Interfaith Councils, etc. Children are given classroom assignments to pray to Allah, and universities are reflecting positions contrary to tolerance and free speech. Sadly, tolerance is not being practiced towards all. Violence against Christians and Jewish groups on campus is escalating. Unfortunately the internet is an important tool which can and has been used to shape thinking and organize riots.
During the election we certainly had front seats in observing mob action violence, assembled through the power of the internet. My husband, Win tries to keep up with world news. A retired engineer, he explained that Google uses an algorithm which orders the presentation of information in agreement with their political views. Granted, everyone has a right to present their views. I have never seen any PragerU YouTube's that could be described as such. The PragerU YouTube's that I have viewed are totally consistent with traditional Judeo-Christian principles, usually bright, clear, short and to the point.
Whatever it means, it must go beyond an algorithm devised by any one corporation , setting the speech rules on the playground of the global skies. A "Hate Crime" appears to be defined as bodily violence based on prejudice against a specific group. But what is "Hate Speech"? Disagreeing politically should not be identified as "Hate "Speech". Yet groups are using that term to stop individuals and groups from voicing their opinion, their free speech. The importance of free speech can not be minimized.
It is the foundation of a free democratic society. Google and YouTube have the technology in place to thwart free speech. Let us hope that the principles of respect for the individual will grow, and rather than fall backward and emerge into a George Orwell nation, with only politically correct speech and thinking allowed, the internet can and should allow all voices to be heard.
Note what is happening in Canada. The whole process of fast-tracking this bill, and slandering pro-life people throughout, was a shame. After the Liberals were lambasted in the press for rejecting the motion allegedly to divide the Tory caucus over abortion, the three parties agreed to unanimously fast-track the legislation. According to Naqvi, the impetus for Bill came from Ottawa mayor Jim Watson, who asked for it after staff at the Morgentaler abortion center on Banks Street alleged that pro-life protestors were harassing and intimidating women as they approached the abortion facility.
There was a alleged incident of someone spitting on a woman. But pro-life blogger Patricia Moloney obtained through a freedom of information request a record of Ottawa police attendance at the Morgentaler abortion center from January to June It is unknown if the assaults were perpetrated against pro-life or against pro-choice people.
So why do we need this bubble zone? Why did Jim Watson initiate this law? He prefers to treat us like second class citizens. If we try and discuss pro-life concerns with him, either by email or in person , his disgust for us is clear. Five pro-life groups presented on the bill during the hearings, as did eight abortion advocacy groups, and pro-bill Ottawa city counselor Catherine McKenney.
Similar legislation passed in BC in was challenged in court, he said. He submitted a peer-reviewed study presented by abortion advocates and published last year in Canadian Family Physician reported on a survey of abortion facilities across Canada. It says if you hold a certain opinion, you cannot express it.
Your constitutional rights are not protected. The committee made no amendments to the bubble zone bill, which is now only needs royal assent to become law. Serving in Congress is an honor, not a career. The Founding Fathers envisioned citizen legislators, who would serve their term s , then go home and go back to work. Salary of retired US Presidents.. Here's where cuts could be made! All funds in the Congressional retirement fund move to the Social Security system immediately.
All future funds flow into the Social Security system, and Congress participates with the American people. It may not be used for any other purpose. Congress can purchase their own retirement plan, just as all Americans do.. Congress will no longer vote themselves a pay raise. Congress loses their current health care system and participates in the same health care system as the American people.
Congress must equally abide by all laws they impose on the American people. Average Salary of a teacher. Yes, that day of grace, that fullness of life, Still lifts my heart and mind from a solitude That evicts my soul from pique to love And delights me from confusing times. Autumn, those days are now rarely lived. DNA had showed we were related, our family research records, showed us how!!
Early this October, I received a notice through ancestry. My great-grandmother is a Villela from Nonoava and that line in my tree ended with her father so naturally I wanted more information.
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We continued corresponding and at one point I asked where he was living. To my surprise, he lives in LA County. Our correspondence started on a Thursday and that same weekend, Saturday, I was to give a presentation to the Whittier Area Genealogical Society and invited him to attend. Yes, he would be there. Before I was to start, I saw a man who I thought could be my cousin. We met again at my home, this time it was his sister, Vivian, Albert, and I. We had not been able to find the common ancestor so that was the purpose of this meeting. The problem was that his Great-great grandfather and my great-great grandfather had different wives, or so it seemed.
What a find! Las fuerzas del mal siempre regresan, como un hongo, para alimentarse del tejido carcomido del mundo. Campos y Escalante campce gmail. Others as of late are highly offended by something that happened years ago and yet, are only here to complain about it because of being direct beneficiaries of it. This decree also called the decree of expulsion set July of as the no-later-than date for Jews to be gone from Spain. Angered by false albeit forced conversions and centuries of Muslim domination of their Iberian Peninsula, the monarchs sought to solidify their control by ridding their empire of any non-Roman Catholics.
Any Jews remaining after July, or anyone found sheltering them, risked having all their possessions and wealth confiscated by the state. Of note, the Spanish Inquisition was still in its infancy but would be remembered for its unjust imprisonments, unbelievably brutal torture methods, and being burnt at the stake. But as July loomed, Sephardic Jews would once again find themselves being uprooted from their homes and moved away. The Old Testament prophets such as Moses, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel recorded how their descendants would be a people scattered about the earth and on the move as a continuation of the divine chastisement for their disobedience.
Thus, the entirety of the 1, years of Jewish Diaspora would be one marked by expulsion and exile. Then the Lord will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other, and there you shall serve other gods, which neither you nor your fathers have known—wood and stone.
And among those nations you shall find no rest, nor shall the sole of your foot have a resting place; but there the Lord will give you a trembling heart, failing eyes, and anguish of soul. Your life shall hang in doubt before you; you shall fear day and night, and have no assurance of life. Deuteronomy Yet, as if by divine providence, August 3 rd of would be a day that would change the world forever. This was the day that an Italian some say even Jewish explorer named Christopher Columbus set sail to find a new western trade route to India. Christopher Columbus has since been largely hailed as opening up the New World to European colonization.
It would seem, that the notoriously violent pagan empires of the Aztecs and Mayans, finally got their own version of a comeuppance. Many disagree as to whether this was beneficial or not to the then-current inhabitants of the new continents, but regardless, we are here and that is history. But as Spain, England, and other European and Middle Eastern nations were in varying stages of turning against their Jewish citizens, God was busy preparing another way. The Americas would become a safe haven for the Jewish people for the next four centuries.
What we fail to see, is that for the previous three centuries, Rome was a steamroller busy conquering anyone and everyone they turned their iron-fisted gaze towards. Jewish populations still existed in Babylon, Asia-Minor, Alexandria, and other places that were under the Roman thumb. This is why during the major religious holidays such as Passover, Jerusalem would be filled to the brim with Jews from within the Empire. This allowed the gospel to spread rapidly across the Roman Empire. It was here also that the Christian faith was the most attacked. The tension for those subsequent decades after the Resurrection was increasingly palpable.
It would eventually come to a head not with Christians but with Rome in which the reality would change. Flavius Josephus records that around a million Jews died as well as the Second Temple being destroyed in the siege by Roman General Titus. Another rebellion in AD cemented the Diaspora when then Emperor Hadrian forbade the Jews from returning to the land. And they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led away captive into all nations.
And Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. Having returned to the land in , established as a nation in , the Jews were reclaiming more and more of their ancient homeland with each subsequent war. We are again at a point in time when the Jews are the most militarily and economically powerful nations in the world.
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Conclusion This author firmly believes that the rash of both natural and man-made disasters that have seemingly plagued the Trump Administration thus far is largely due to an un-kept promise that was made during the campaign trail of moving our embassy to the capital of Israel. Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week; But in the middle of the week He shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering.
And on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate, Even until the consummation, which is determined, Is poured out on the desolate. Whether the new temple is already standing at this point is up for much debate, but seeing as the nation of Israel thanks to the Temple Mount Faithful and other groups has everything pretty much ready to go.
It would seem that all that needs to happen is the right crisis. That crisis could come in the form of war or something that removes the benefactor status away from the United States. That could be the Rapture of the Church, or we could suffer some major calamity that removes us from any significant role for the time being. Ultimately, the third Temple will stand again, and it will be here that this man Antichrist uses as a bargaining chip to put the Jews back in his crosshairs. Yes, they will mourn for Him as one mourns for his only son, and grieve for Him as one grieves for a firstborn.
It is this week that God pours out His judgments on a Christ-rejecting world. Although most of the world is destroyed, God uses this as the chastisement to bring Israel back to the point that they finally realize that Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ after all. As to the nations… I will also gather all nations, And bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there On account of My people, My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations; They have also divided up My land.
The Jew has survived because God is merciful and He keeps His word. Sent by O dell Harwell odell. In accordance with Title 17 U. Kapp learned to play football on those lettuce fields , and it was also in those housing projects where Kapp developed a toughness that defined the rest of his life. They had gang fights going all the time and even an occasional shoot-out or knifing.
In football—a sport that values toughness above all—Kapp earned a respect that overcame his actual ability. Growing up in an environment that, above all else, valued toughness, influenced how Kapp played quarterback. He was a barroom brawler, someone who even started fights with teammates. The first fight occurred while playing in Canada; it left him with a scar across the jaw, courtesy of a bottle broken and raked across his face. The gash required stitches and came within a half-inch of severing his jugular.
As they drank tequila and expressed that blame should fall on them, the disagreement escalated to a fist fight. Further, as a Mexican-American, Kapp served as a uniting force between white and black players. Photo: Wikimedia Commons. Leading up the game—where the Vikings were 13 point favorites against the Kansas City Chiefs—newspapers across the country mentioned his unconventional talent.
Classics are for Greeks. Few, if any, get out of playing professional football without long-lasting effects. This was especially the case with Kapp. The loss included Kapp getting knocked out of the game with a shoulder injury. It just stops. Kapp would eventually end up on the New England Patriots before sitting out the season, again, to protest his contract.
Devoid of context, his overall statistics seem mediocre. His name also gets mentioned when discussing the long-term health effects of football. This was especially the case with Kapp, who played in a different era of football—and society—where there was an added value to toughness; or, in his world, machismo. At years-old, Kapp got into a fistfight and knocked down a former opponent while on stage at a banquet honoring them.
Joe Kapp played only 4 seasons in the NFL. He is not as deserving of the Pro Football Hall of Fame as Jim Plunkett or Tom Flores are—who remain outside of serious consideration despite their clear qualifications —but Kapp was a pioneer. NFL players have been arrested times since It even includes two murders. Statistically speaking, this is insignificant! What is never told, however, is a breakdown of those 30, deaths, to put them in perspective as compared to other causes of death:.
So technically, "gun violence" is not 30, annually, but drops to 5, Still too many?
El manuscrito de Neopatria (Spanish Edition)
Well, first, how are those deaths spanned across the nation? All 4 of those cities have strict gun laws, so it is not the lack of law that is the root cause. This basically leaves 3, for the entire rest of the nation, or about 75 deaths per state. That is an average because some States have much higher rates than others. Now, who has the strictest gun laws by far? California, of course, but understand, it is not guns causing this. It is a crime rate spawned by the number of criminal persons residing in those cities and states.
So if all cities and states are not created equally, then there must be something other than the tool causing the gun deaths. Are 5, deaths per year horrific? How about in comparison to other deaths? All death is sad and especially so when it is in the commission of a crime but that is the nature of crime. Robbery, death, rape, assault all is done by criminals and thinking that criminals will obey laws is ludicrous.
That's why they are criminals. But what about other deaths each year? Now it gets good:. So what is the point? So you have to ask yourself, in the grand scheme of things, why the focus on guns? The founders of this nation knew that regardless of the form of government, those in power may become corrupt and seek to rule as the British did by trying to disarming the populace of the colonies. It is not difficult to understand that a disarmed populace is a controlled populace. Thus, the second amendment was proudly and boldly included in the US.
It must be preserved at all costs. So the next time someone tries to tell you that gun control is about saving lives, look at these facts and remember these words from Noah Webster: "Before a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed, as they are in almost every kingdom in Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword, because the whole body of the people are armed and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on any pretense, raised in the United States.
A military force at the command of Congress can execute no laws, but such as the people perceive to be just and constitutional; for they will possess the power. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and hardly a peep has been heard from the media. It is intended as a positive voice reflecting good works and good events. The concept was organized and developed by Mike Briggs.
The availability was offered as a free service. There are a few volunteer interviewers, and thousands interviewed seasonally. Robin was interviewed by Rev. Steve Walling. She explains current DNA research on the Wilbur-Cruce horses and their genetic connection to the Spanish horse who were brought into the Americas by the Spanish in the s.
These horses heritage is traceable to the Iberian plains, thousands of years ago. Robin's dream is to preserve the history and proven lineage of the Wilbur-Cruce horses at Rancho del Sueno. By Ann Troutner, M. Ana Trucha. Oct 22, The Wilbur-Cruce horses are rare and critically endangered with less than on the planet. HDC , a preservation, conservation, historical and educational c 3 non-profit. That is why I am giving back to them by trying to conserve the quickly fading segments of their history, re-create their distinguished past and tell of the stories of the peoples they served and the lives they changed by founding the Heritage Discovery Center.
We offer event and banquet services for your special occasions, like birthdays, weddings and anniversaries. Contact: Ann Troutner, M. Ana Trucha atroutner prescott. These 4 hour Sailing Adventures are for people who love history, and sailing. Very few people have sailed aboard Galleons of the sixteenth century and these day sails will offer the public a chance to be aboard the magnificent galleon, the San Salvador. You can check-in as early as am, enjoy the Museum before or after your sail.
Any new times will be noted on ticket. Why is the 12th of April celebrated in Louisiana? The first part of the title is a famous quote from Galvez. A few of our uniformed members served as Color Guard and presented information about our organization at the book signing last Thursday evening. The first paragraph of the newspaper article states, "The Fife and Drum Corps of the Granaderos y Damas de Galvez, attired in the uniforms of 18th-century Spanish grenadiers, is a regular feature of public life in San Antonio, including ceremonies at the Alamo and Fiesta parades.
Viva los Granaderos y Damas de Galvez! Joe Perez jperez satx. Carlos Campos y Escalante campce gmail.
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On this day in , a group of Mexican Americans and Mexicans met at the city auditorium in Harlingen, Texas, to discuss organizing against racial discrimination. Members of various existing groups--including the Order of Sons of America and the Order of Knights of America--attended. The convention was divided, however, over the question of whether Mexican citizens should be involved in a Texas political organization. So serious was the disagreement that perhaps 90 percent of the delegates bolted from the meeting.
Moreover, some remaining conferees opposed forming a new organization. Nevertheless, a new group came into being. Perales provisionally called it the League of Latin American Citizens. By George Farias. In the University of Texas in Austin offered him a temporary position to fill in for an ill faculty member of European and Medieval studies.
He was allowed to teach the colonial history of Texas and went to Mexico in search of sources. He quickly became the leader in the field. Bolton developed two basic concepts to revise the way in which U. Secondly, he urged U. Needless to say, many historians disagreed with Bolton seeing the Spanish episode as a small prelude to the emergence and dominance of England. Bolton received criticism for his work, but he successfully initiated his program developing over time many Ph.
Moorhead and John Francis Bannon. We live in an English-speaking country with deep Protestant roots, and knowledge of Spanish history in the United States, which is mostly Catholic, will remain subordinated for a long time and little appreciated. Recently the rise of Hispanic genealogical non-profit clubs and organizations in the United States is bringing to the fore the fact that Hispanic explorers and settlers in the Americas contributed significantly not only to the development of Mexico and Latin America but to the United States as well.
Cadena, one of the lawyers who won the landmark Hernandez vs. Texas case before the Supreme Court. To understand the influence of Spain in America one needs to begin with a review and perspective of the historical time periods in the New World. Consider that by the time Jamestown was founded in , Spain had been in America for over a hundred years.
The English were able to settle on the East Coast because that area had been bypassed by Spaniards as not containing enough resources to make it worthwhile. By that time over , persons of Spanish, Portuguese, and Basque descent were living in the New World. Within fifty years of the founding of America, Spanish maritime expeditions had already explored all the coast lines of North, Central, and South America.
Many towns, missions, and cathedrals existed, and a university was in operation in Mexico City. He had been born and baptized in the Catholic faith and went to Spain twice and later to Mexico City. He spoke Castilian and was on hand to meet the Jamestown settlers. He helped them with farming, hunting, building shelters, and tribal relations. Another historical perspective that is not usually obvious about American history is that the period from the discovery of America in to U. From to today, , the time span is years. In studying history we forget this fact, thinking that our history started somewhere shortly before the time of George Washington.
We are not generally cognizant that significant historical events, mostly Spanish, occurred during those prior years. But our academic inculcation of English history tends to consider those times, which are longer than our modern period, as historical blanks. Its exact location is not known. Located in a swampy area, malaria, unfriendly Indians, and homesickness doomed the settlement from the start much like the struggle for survival by the Jamestown settlers. Two other Spanish settlements predated Jamestown in and Plymouth in This period has been much glamorized in U.
This was a period of years presided over by 62 viceroys, in effect representatives of the Spanish kings. This expansion included two major northward movements from Mexico City into what is now Texas and New Mexico. The last major outpost, Monterrey, in what is now Northern Mexico, was founded September 20, It was the farthest outpost in the wilderness. To the north was Texas, the unknown land. The northern movement continued after Mexico became independent from Spain and all told this expansion lasted years. It is noteworthy that the two movements merged in Texas, that of the buckskin-clad frontiersman who met the Mexican vaquero and, borrowed his ranching knowledge and techniques.
Thus, the folklore of the heroic Western cowboy was born. Forts were built to stem the Indian tide and to protect property. Ranches, farms, and towns were established by settlers, including those for mining bases, with public officials elected to govern.
Rubio I Lluch, Antoni
The Catholic religious orders established missions and schools and the wilderness was slowly pushed back. The area triad of town, presidio, and mission was a unique feature of Spanish settlements established to protect and bring peace to a populated area. In a speech before the Alamo in celebration of the Tejano heroes who fought at the Alamo, Dr. There are, however, many men in the subsequent expansion of the Spanish empire who are not household names as a result of the suppression of Spanish and Mexican history in the United States.
Arredondo suppressed the first attempt by filibusters to take over Texas. It is the largest battle ever fought west of the Mississippi with over casualties mostly from the rebel ranks. Arredondo took back San Antonio and stayed for a year executing rebel sympathizers. Santa Anna became familiar with the San Antonio area in this battle twenty-three years before he laid siege to the Alamo. As the villain of the later battle, he has been a caricature in Texas history and stereotypically portrayed in film as a cruel, despotic and mad ruler.
He was no more brutal than anyone of his time in any country. The Alamo story is a classic example of glorified United States history, whose defenders in the battle were supposedly fighting for Texas liberty. Militarily, the Alamo was inconsequential. Further, had the defenders and their compatriots been more patient their lives could have been spared. The land-hungry hordes of Manifest Destiny would have later overrun Texas which Mexico, in its weak state, could not defend.
Santa Anna surprised them in a pre-dawn attack and some chose to stand, but about men decided to flee and fight another day running out the back of the mission. They were heading for the Gonzales road that began in the area south of the Alamo known as the Alameda. There are other interesting aspects to the history and genealogy of Hispanics in the New World. A significant number of Mexican and U.
Hispanics are descendants of Portuguese and Spanish Jews, known as Sephardic Jews, who converted voluntarily or forcibly to Catholicism during the persecution of the Middle Ages. The Sephardim considered themselves the elite of Jewry in Spain as the leading scholars, physicians, lawyers, financiers, mapmakers, and merchants. Many early settlers of Northern Mexico, particularly in Monterrey and Saltillo were conversos converts. Some were called Crypto-Jews, openly Catholic, but practicing Jewish rites in secret. They were the main target of the Inquisition, which also crossed the Atlantic to the New World.
A common ancestor is Abraham Ha-Levi a great literary figure from a prosperous merchant family from Burgos, Spain. Another unusual aspect of these Hispanic settlers is that many of them were descended from the royal houses of Europe. One more interesting fact, in the general history of the United States, concerns three Hispanics who were instrumental in the success of the American Revolution and without whose help our country would possibly not exist today. Without the contributions of these men perhaps the United States today would not be a dominant world power but rather a third world country made up of Spanish, French, and English postcolonial entities.
The first notable person was George Washington, whom historian Robert H. As our first president he set a standard and protocol for the office that exists even today. Some historians consider him to be the greatest man born in the last thousand years worldwide. He was field marshal of all the Spanish armies in America. Bernardo arrived in Mexico in and became commandant of the army of Nueva Vizcaya. He had already served in a campaign against Portugal and later fought in France and Algiers.
He fought the Apaches on the frontier and once was wounded with a lance that pierced his chest. The Apaches left him for dead but he miraculously recovered. In January he became Governor of Louisiana. The supplies went up the Mississippi and the Ohio River. They arrived in time and Fort Pitt was saved. As an example, in one shipment on September Spain contributed brass cannon, gun carriages, 27 mortars, 29 couplings, 12, shells, 51, bullets. He requisitioned beef for his forces from Texas ranchers, primarily those that operated between San Antonio and Goliad along the San Antonio River.
The descendants of these ranchers are qualified to become members of the Sons of the American Revolution. He defeated the British all up and down the Mississippi and then turned his attention to the Gulf. England was trying to take over the area primarily to split North America and South America. In addition, Central America had many natural resources and control was necessary to transport goods overland between the Atlantic and The Pacific oceans.
Matias also defeated the British and expelled them from that theatre of war. Cagigal in Cuba. A loan was arranged and a call went out to the Cuban people to also contribute. It is said that the Cubans contributed arms, munitions, and clothing and even personal items of gold and silver. Washington reportedly filled two warehouses with the goods.
The soldiers were paid and with the blockade of the sea by the French navy under Admiral Francois-Joseph Paul de Grasse, Washington dealt the final blow to British troops, paving the way for a new and independent nation. We owe Cubans a debt of gratitude. The third notable Hispanic, lesser known, but crucial to winning the Revolutionary War was a Portuguese lad named Peter Francisco abandoned on the shores of America on June 23, He was outside the window of St. Even then he had grown to a large size and was very strong. He was first wounded at the Battle of Brandywine, and he recuperated next to a young general, the Marquis de Lafayette, also wounded in that battle.
They became life-long friends. Peter fought in almost every major battle of the Revolution and was a legend in his time. It is said you could not sit by campfire without listing to stories of his exploits. He was wounded six times, two almost fatally, and he was a hero in peacetime also, at one time carrying armfuls of people from a disastrous theater fire in Richmond, Virginia. He was six-foot-eight and described as the Virginia Giant. Some historians believe him to have been the strongest man in America and consider him the greatest soldier who has ever served in U. He was truly a One-Man Army.
La Leyenda Negra consists of historical writings and attitudes that demonize Spain and its empire and was created to incite animosity against Spanish rule. One example says that the conquistadores were extremely cruel killing thousands of Indians in sadistic fashion and had to demonstrate their superiority in ugly and oppressive acts. The Black Legend says that no military necessity justifies such acts and the only possible explanation lies in a national psychological perversion. The Spaniards rebut that these stories have been developed by enemies of Spain without looking at the true facts.
While such acts of extremism occurred, they happened on both sides, as in all wars, and were indicative of the entire age. With respect to cruelty, Spain has a better record than England, which virtually exterminated the Indians in their colonies in one of the most lethal and determined programs of ethnic slaughter on record.
And the English, unlike the Spanish, never expressed any feelings of guilt or questioned the ethics of their imperial conduct. Spaniards made citizens of their Native American subjects, assimilated by marriage with many of the advanced tribes, and educated them. This denigration of Spain and its people can be traced back to Queen Elizabeth I, a bitter enemy of Philip II , especially after the Spanish Armanda was launched but failed to accomplish its goals.
The Catholic versus Protestant conflict figured prominently in the alienation of the two countries. Elizabeth envied the territories and riches of Spain, already a world power when England was still a pastoral agricultural country emerging from the Dark Ages. She was, no doubt, a worthy opponent and she set her pirates, mainly the fleets of Francis Drake and John Hawkins, to infringe on Spanish territory and capture their ships loaded with gold and silver on their way to Europe.
Spain was unable to defend such a large worldwide territory and the English, French and Dutch consistently harassed Spanish territories.