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He asked how he could cross the Atlantic without a co-pilot. He does not have to come here. Another president complained that his honor guard could not come because there was some misunderstanding regarding his name when it came to granting a visa. Another president said his own doctor could not get a visa and could not come to America.

The security measures are very strict. If a country has any problem with America, they will set up restrictions on the movements of member delegations, as if one is in Guantanamo. Is this a Member State of the United Nations, or is it a prisoner in the Guantanamo camp that cannot be allowed free movement? This is what is submitted to the General Assembly for a vote — moving the Headquarters.

If 51 per cent agree, then we come to the second vote: to the middle of the globe, or to the eastern part. If we say that we must move the Headquarters to the middle of the hemisphere, why do we not move to Sirte or Vienna?

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One can come even without a visa. Once you come as a president, Libya is a secure country. We are not going to restrict you to or meters. Libya has no hostile actions against anybody. I think the same holds true of Vienna. If the vote says we should move Headquarters to the eastern part, then it will be Delhi or Beijing, the capital of China or the capital of India. That is logical, my brothers.

I do not think there will be any objection to that. Then you will thank me for this proposal, for eliminating the suffering and the trouble of flying 14, 15 or 20 hours to come here. No one can blame America or say that America will reduce its contributions to the United Nations. No one should have that bad thought. America, I am sure, is committed to its international obligations. America will not be angry; it will thank you for alleviating its hardship, for taking on all that hardship and all the restrictions, even though this place is targeted by terrorists.

We come now to the issues that will be considered by the General Assembly. We are about to put the United Nations on trial; the old organization will be finished and a new one will emerge. This is not a normal gathering. Even son Obama said that this is not a normal gathering. It is a historic meeting. The wars that took place after the establishment of the United Nations — why did they occur? There should be investigations and judicial intervention. Why have there been massacres?

We can start with the Korean War because it took place after the establishment of the United Nations. How did a war break out and cause millions of victims? Nuclear weapons could have been used in that war. Those who are responsible for causing the war should be tried and should pay compensation and damages. Then we come to the Suez Canal war of That file should be opened wide. Three countries with permanent seats on the Security Council and with the right of veto in the Council attacked a member State of this General Assembly.

A country that was a sovereign State — Egypt — was attacked, its army was destroyed, thousands of Egyptians were killed and many Egyptian towns and entities were destroyed, all because Egypt wanted to nationalize the Suez Canal. How could such a thing have happened during the era of the United Nations and its Charter? How is it possible to guarantee that such a thing will not be repeated unless we make amends for past wrongs? Those were dangerous events and the Suez Canal and Korean War files should be re-opened.

Next we come to the Viet Nam war. There were 3 million victims of that war. During 12 days, more bombs were dropped than during four years of the Second World War. It was a fiercer war, and it took place after the establishment of the United Nations and after we had decided that there would be no more wars.

The future of humankind is at stake. We cannot stay silent. How can we feel safe? How can we be complacent? This is the future of the world, and we who are in the General Assembly of the United Nations must make sure that such wars are not repeated in the future. Then Panama was attacked, even though it was an independent member State of the General Assembly. Four thousand people were killed, and the President of that country was taken prisoner and put in prison.

Noriega should be released — we should open that file. How can we entitle a country that is a United Nations Member State to wage war against another country and capture its president, treat him as a criminal and put him in prison? Who would accept that? It could be repeated.

We should not stay quiet. We should have an investigation. Any one of us Member States could face the same situation, especially if such aggression is by a Member State with a permanent seat on the Security Council and with the responsibility to maintain peace and security worldwide. Then there was the war in Grenada.

That country was invaded even though it was a Member State. It was attacked by 5, war ships, 7, troops and dozens of military aircraft, and it is the smallest country in the world. This occurred after the establishment of the United Nations and of the Security Council and its veto. And the President of Grenada, Mr. Maurice Bishop, was assassinated.

How could that have happened with impunity? It is a tragedy. How can we guarantee that the United Nations is good or not, that a certain country is good or not? Can we be safe or happy about our future or not? Can we trust the Security Council or not? Can we trust the United Nations or not? We must look into and investigate the bombing of Somalia. Somalia is a United Nations Member State. It is an independent country under the rule of Aidid. We want an investigation. Why did that happen? Who allowed it to happen? Who gave the green light for that country to be attacked?

Then there is the former Yugoslavia. No country was as peaceful as Yugoslavia, constructed step by step and piece by piece after being destroyed by Hitler. We destroyed it, as if we were doing the same job as Hitler. Tito built that peaceful country step by step and brick by brick and then we arrived and broke it apart for imperialistic, personal interests. How can we be complacent about that? Why can we not be satisfied? If a peaceful country like Yugoslavia faced such a tragedy, the General Assembly should have an investigation and should decide who should be tried before the International Criminal Court.

Then we have the war in Iraq — the mother of all evils. The United Nations should also investigate that. The General Assembly, presided over by Mr. Treki, should investigate that. The invasion of Iraq was a violation of the United Nations Charter. It was done without any justification by super-Powers with permanent seats on the Security Council. Iraq is an independent country and a member State of the General Assembly. How could those countries attack Iraq? As provided for in the Charter, the United Nations should have intervened and stopped the attack.

We spoke in the General Assembly and urged it to use the Charter to stop that attack. We were against the invasion of Kuwait, and the Arab countries fought Iraq alongside foreign countries in the name of the United Nations Charter. In the first instance, the Charter was respected. The second time when we wanted to use the Charter to stop the war against Iraq, no one used it and that document was ignored. Why did that occur? Treki and the General Assembly should investigate to determine whether there was any reason at all to invade Iraq.

Because the reasons for that attack remain mysterious and ambiguous, and we might face the same destiny. Why was Iraq invaded? The invasion itself was a serious violation of the United Nations Charter, and it was wrong. There was also a total massacre or genocide. More than 1. We want to bring the Iraqi file before the International Criminal Court ICC , and we want those who committed mass murder against the Iraqi people to be tried.

It is easy for Charles Taylor to be tried, or for Bashir to be tried, or for Noriega to be tried. That is an easy job. Yes, but what about those who have committed mass murder against the Iraqis? They cannot be tried? They cannot go before the ICC? If the Court is unable to accommodate us, then we should not accept it. Either it is meant for all of us, large or small, or we should not accept it and should reject it. Anyone who commits a war crime can be tried, but we are not livestock or animals like those that are slaughtered for the Eid.

We have the right to live, and we are ready to fight and to defend ourselves. We have the right to live in dignity, under the sun and on earth; they have already tested us and we have withstood the test. There are other things as well. Why is it that Iraqi prisoners of war can be sentenced to death? When Iraq was invaded and the President of Iraq was taken he was a prisoner of war.

He should not have been tried; he should not have been hanged. When the war was over, he should have been released. We want to know why a prisoner of war should have been tried. Who sentenced the President of Iraq to death? Is there an answer to that question? We know the identity of the judge who tried him. How could this have happened in a civilized world? These were prisoners of war of civilized countries under international law. How could Government ministers and a head of State be sentenced to death and hanged?

Were those who tried them lawyers or members of a judicial system? Do you know what people are saying? They are saying that the faces behind the masks were those of the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and that it was they who put the President of Iraq to death. Why do the executioners not unmask their faces? Why do we not know their ranks?

Why do we not know whether they were officers, judges, soldiers or doctors? How does it come about that the President of a State Member of the United Nations was sentenced to death and killed? We do not know the identity of the executioners. The United Nations is duty-bound to answer these questions: who carried out the death sentence? They must have legal status and official responsibilities; we should know their identities and we should know about the presence of a physician and the nature of all the legal proceedings.

That would be true for an ordinary citizen, let alone for the President of a State Member of the United Nations who was put to death in that manner. My third point on the Iraq war relates to Abu Ghraib. This was a disgrace to humankind. I know that the United States authorities will investigate this scandal, but the United Nations must not ignore it either. The General Assembly should investigate this matter. Prisoners of war held in Abu Ghraib prison were torturers; dogs were set on them; men were raped.

This is unprecedented in the history of war. It was sodomy, and it was an unprecedented sin, never before committed by past aggressors or invaders. Prisoners of war are soldiers, but these were raped in prison by a State, a permanent member of the Security Council. This goes against civilization and humankind.

We must not keep silent; we must know the facts. Even today, a quarter of a million Iraqi prisoners, men and women alike, remain in Abu Ghraib. They are being maltreated, persecuted and raped. There must be an investigation. Turning to the war in Afghanistan, this too must be investigated. Why are we against the Taliban? Why are we against Afghanistan? Who are the Taliban? If the Taliban want a religious State, that is fine. Think of the Vatican. Does the Vatican pose a threat to us? It is a religious, very peaceful State. If the Taliban want to create an Islamic Emirate, who says that this makes them an enemy?

Muammar Gaddafi - Wikipedia

Is anyone claiming that Bin Laden is of the Taliban or that he is Afghan? Is Bin Laden of the Taliban? No; he is not of the Taliban and he is not Afghan. Were the terrorists who hit New York City of the Taliban? Were they from Afghanistan? They were neither Taliban nor Afghan. Then, what was the reason for the wars in Iraq and in Afghanistan? If I truly wanted to deceive my American and British friends, I would encourage them to send more troops and I would encourage them to persist in this bloodbath.

But they will never succeed in Iraq or Afghanistan. Look what happened to them in Iraq, which is a desert. It is even worse in mountainous Afghanistan. If I wanted to deceive them I would tell them to continue the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Foreign relations of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi

But no, I want to save the citizens of the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries who are fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan. If they want to fight each other, they are free to do so. America had its Civil War, and no one interfered in it. There were civil wars in Spain, China and countries all over the world — no place on Earth has been free of civil wars. Let there be a civil war in Iraq. If the Iraqis want to have a civil war and fight each other, that is fine.

Who says that if the Taliban form a Government they would possess intercontinental missiles or the kind of airplanes that hit New York? Did those airplanes take off from Afghanistan or Iraq? No; they took off from American airports. So why is Afghanistan being struck?

The terrorists were not Afghans or Taliban or Iraqis. Why are we silent? We must never be war devils: anyone who does not speak the truth is a silent devil. We are committed to international peace and security. We do not wish to scorn or ridicule humankind. We want to save humanity. As President of the General Assembly, Mr. Ali Treki should open an investigation of the assassinations file — in addition to the war files. Who killed Patrice Lumumba, and why?

We merely want to record it in the annals of African history; we want to know how an African leader, a liberator, came to be assassinated. Who killed him?

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We want to know the facts, even 50 years on. That is one file that should be reopened. Then, there is the assassination of United States President Kennedy in We want to know who killed him and why. Why did he kill him? Then Jack Ruby, the killer of the killer of Kennedy, died in mysterious circumstances before he could be tried.

We must open the files. The whole world knows that Kennedy wanted to investigate the Israeli Dimona nuclear reactor. This involves international peace and security and weapons of mass destruction. That is why we should open this file. Then there is the assassination of Martin Luther King, the black reverend and human rights activist.

His assassination was a plot, and we should know why he was killed and who killed him. We cannot keep silent. Even though submarines and ships were detected along the coast of Tunisia, where he was killed, no one was accused or tried. Abu Iyad was also killed, and we should know how he was killed. He was killed in ambiguous circumstances. They were attacked and killed while sleeping peacefully. We should know who killed them, and he should be tried so that those crimes against humanity are not repeated. We have already talked about the size of the force used in the invasion of Grenada — 7, troops, 15 battleships and dozens of bombers — and President Bishop was killed even though Grenada was a Member State.

Those are crimes, and we cannot keep silent. Otherwise, we will look like sacrificial beasts. We are not animals. Year after year, we are attacked. We defend ourselves, our sons and our children, and we are not afraid. We have the right to live, and the Earth is not destined for violence, but for us all. We can never live on this Earth in such humiliation. So those are the wars. The last file is that of the massacres. In the Sabra and Shatila massacre, 3, people were killed.

That area, under the protection of the occupying Israeli army, was the site of a huge and calamitous massacre in which 3, Palestinian men, women and children were killed. How can we keep quiet? Lebanon is a sovereign State; a member of the General Assembly was occupied, Sabra and Shatila were under Israeli control, and then the massacre took place.

Then there was the massacre in Gaza. There were 1, women and 2, children among the victims killed in the massacre in Gaza in Sixty United Nations facilities and another 30 belonging to non-governmental organizations were damaged. Fifty clinics were destroyed. Forty doctors and nurses were killed while carrying out humanitarian activities. This took place in Gaza in December Should we try only the underdogs, the weak and the poor of third-world countries, and not important and protected figures?

Under international law, they should all face trial for the consequences of the crimes that they have committed. Otherwise, the role of the ICC will never be recognized. If the decisions of the ICC are not respected or implemented, if the General Assembly and the Security Council mean nothing, and if the International Atomic Energy Agency serves only certain countries and organizations, then what is the United Nations? It would mean that the United Nations is nothing and is insignificant. Where is it? There is no United Nations. Then, while piracy may be a phenomenon of the high seas, a form of terrorism, we talk about the piracy in Somalia.

Somalis are not pirates. We are the pirates. We went there and usurped their economic zones, their fish and their wealth. Libya, India, Japan and America — any country in the world — we are all pirates. We all entered the territorial waters and economic zones of Somalia and stole. The Somalis are protecting their own fish, their sustenance. Now, we seek to address that matter in the wrong way. Should we send warships to Somalia?

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We should send warships to the pirates who have attacked and seized the economic zones and wealth of the Somalis and the food of their children. I met the pirates, and I told them that I would negotiate an agreement between them and the international community that respects the mile exclusive economic zone under the law of the sea, that protects all marine resources belonging to the Somali people, and that stops all countries from disposing of toxic waste along the Somali coast. In return, the Somalis would no longer attack ships. We will propose and draft such an international treaty and submit it to the General Assembly.

That is the solution. The solution does not lie in sending more military ships to fight the Somalis. That is not the solution. We are addressing the phenomena of piracy and terrorism in the wrong way. Today there is swine flu. Perhaps tomorrow there will be fish flu, because sometimes we produce viruses by controlling them. It is a commercial business. Capitalist companies produce viruses so that they can generate and sell vaccinations.

That is very shameful and poor ethics. Vaccinations and medicine should not be sold. In The Green Book, I maintain that medicines should not be sold or subject to commercialization. Medicines should be free of charge and vaccinations given free to children, but capitalist companies produce the viruses and vaccinations and want to make a profit.

Why are they not free of charge? We should give them free of charge, and not sell them. The entire world should strive to protect our people, create and manufacture vaccinations and give them free to children and women, and not profit by them. All those items are on the agenda of the General Assembly, which has only to exercise that duty. The Ottawa Convention on Landmines forbids the production of landmines. That is wrong. Landmines are defensive weapons. If I place them along the border of my country and someone wants to invade me, they may be killed. That is all right, because they are invading me.

The Convention should be reconsidered. I am not taking that defensive weapon to another country. The enemy is coming to me. On the Al-Qadhafi website, I call for that treaty to be modified or annulled. This treaty should be modified or annulled. I want to use anti-personnel mines to defend my home against invasion. Eliminate weapons of mass destruction, not landmines, which are defensive weapons. With regard to the Palestinian situation, the two-State solution is impossible; it is not practical. Currently, these two States completely overlap. Partition is doomed to failure. These two States are not neighbors; they are coextensive, in terms of both population and geography.

A buffer zone cannot be created between the two States because there are half a million Israeli settlers in the West Bank and a million Arab Palestinians in the territory known as Israel. The solution is therefore a democratic State without religious fanaticism or ethnicity. The generation of Sharon and Arafat is over.

The last moments of Muammar Gaddafi

We need a new generation, in which everyone can live in peace. Look at Palestinian and Israeli youth; they both want peace and democracy, and they want to live under one State. This conflict poisons the world. The White Book actually has the solution; I hold it here. The solution is Isratine. Arabs have no hostility or animosity towards Israel. We are cousins and of the same race. We want to live in peace. The refugees should go back. You are the ones who brought the Holocaust upon the Jews. You, not we, are the ones who burned them. We gave them refuge.

We gave them safe haven during the Roman era and the Arab reign in Andalusia and during the rule of Hitler. You are the ones who poisoned them; you are the ones who annihilated them. We provided them with protection. You expelled them. Let us see the truth. We are not hostile; we are not enemies of the Jews. And one day the Jews will need the Arabs. At that point, Arabs will be the ones to give them protection, to save them, as we have done in the past. Look at what everybody else did to the Jews. Hitler is an example. You are the ones who hate the Jews, not us. In brief, Kashmir should be an independent State, neither Indian nor Pakistani.

We must end that conflict. Kashmir should be a buffer State between India and Pakistan. With regard to Darfur, I truly hope that the assistance provided by international organizations can be used for development projects, for agriculture, for industry and for irrigation. You are the ones who made it a crisis; you put it on the altar; you wanted to sacrifice Darfur so that you could interfere in its internal affairs. You have turned the Hariri problem into a United Nations problem.

You just want to settle scores with Syria. Lebanon is an independent State; it has laws, courts, a judiciary and police. At this stage, it is no longer the perpetrators that are being sought; the real wish is to settle scores with Syria, not ensure justice for Hariri. The General Assembly is now under the presidency of Libya. This is our right. Libya hopes that you will assist in making the transition from a world fraught with crises and tension to a world in which humanity, peace and tolerance prevail.

It is not our habit to compromise when it comes to the destiny of humanity and the struggles of the third world and the small nations, which should live in peace always. Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Libyan Revolution. Article licensed under Creative Commons. Support Voltaire Network. In order to continue our work, we need you to support our efforts. Help us by making a contribution. How to participate in Voltaire Network? The members of our team are all volunteers. Professional-level mother-tongue translators: you can help us by translating our articles.

Who fired on his aero plane in , and why? Muammar al-Gaddafi. This author's articles. According to Douglas Farah , "The amputation of the arms and legs of men, women, and children as part of a scorched-earth campaign was designed to take over the region's rich diamond fields and was backed by Gaddafi, who routinely reviewed their progress and supplied weapons". Gaddafi's strong military support and finances gained him allies across the continent. He had himself crowned with the title " King of Kings of Africa " in , in the presence of over African traditional rulers and kings, although his views on African political and military unification received a lukewarm response from their governments.

In , , and the months prior to the civil war, Gaddafi announced plans for a unified African gold dinar currency, to challenge the dominance of the US Dollar and Euro currencies. The African dinar would have been measured directly in terms of gold. In Gaddafi warned that if France opposes Libyan military occupation of Chad, he will use all weapons in the war against France including the "revolutionary weapon". He also promised financial support for attacks. Reportedly, Gaddafi was a major financier of the " Black September Movement" which perpetrated the Munich massacre at the Summer Olympics.

We have sent them to the Irish revolutionaries so that the British will pay the price for their past deeds". In the Philippines, Libya backed the Moro Islamic Liberation Front , which continues to carry out acts of violence in an effort to establish a separatist Islamic state in the southern Philippines.

Gaddafi also became a strong supporter of the Palestine Liberation Organization , which support ultimately harmed Libya's relations with Egypt, when in Egypt pursued a peace agreement with Israel. Libya became the first country outside the Soviet bloc to receive the supersonic MiG combat fighters, but Soviet-Libyan relations remained relatively distant. Gaddafi also sought to increase Libyan influence, especially in states with an Islamic population, by calling for the creation of a Saharan Islamic state and supporting anti-government forces in sub-Saharan Africa.

In the s and the s, this support was sometimes so freely given that even the most unsympathetic groups could obtain Libyan support; often the groups represented ideologies far removed from Gaddafi's own. Gaddafi's approach often tended to confuse international opinion. Gaddafi applauded the murder and remarked that it was a "punishment". Gaddafi reportedly spent hundreds of millions of the government's money on training and arming Sandinistas in Nicaragua. In April , Libyan refugees in London protested against execution of two dissidents. Communications intercepted by MI5 show that Tripoli ordered its diplomats to direct violence against the demonstrators.

Libyan diplomats shot at 11 people and killed British policewoman Yvonne Fletcher. The incident led to the breaking off of diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Libya for over a decade. After December Rome and Vienna airport attacks , which killed 19 and wounded around , Gaddafi indicated that he would continue to support the Red Army Faction , the Red Brigades , and the Irish Republican Army as long as European countries support anti-Gaddafi Libyans. In , Libyan state television announced that Libya was training suicide squads to attack American and European interests.

On 5 April , Libyan agents were alleged with bombing the "La Belle" nightclub in West Berlin , killing three people and injuring people who were spending evening there. Gaddafi's plan was intercepted by Western intelligence. More-detailed information was retrieved years later when Stasi archives were investigated by the reunited Germany.

Libyan agents who had carried out the operation from the Libyan embassy in East Germany were prosecuted by reunited Germany in the s. In May , Australia broke off relations with Libya because of its role in fueling violence in Oceania. In Australia, there were several cases of attempted radicalisation of Australian Aborigines, with individuals receiving paramilitary training in Libya.

In the s, the Libyan government purchased advertisements in Arabic-language newspapers in Australia asking for Australian Arabs to join the military units of his worldwide struggle against imperialism. In part, because of this, Australia banned recruitment of foreign mercenaries in Australia. Gaddafi developed a relationship with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia , becoming acquainted with its leaders in meetings of revolutionary groups regularly hosted in Libya. Some publications were financed by Gaddafi.

The Socialist Labour League's Workers News was one such publication: "in among the routine denunciations of uranium mining and calls for greater trade union militancy would be a couple of pages extolling Gaddafi's fatuous and incoherent green book and the Libyan revolution. UN Security Council resolutions UNSCRs passed in and obliged Libya to fulfill requirements related to the Pan Am bombing before sanctions could be lifted, leading to Libya's political and economic isolation for most of the s. The UN sanctions cut airline connections with the outer world, reduced diplomatic representation and prohibited the sale of military equipment.

Oil-related sanctions were assessed by some as equally significant for their exceptions: thus sanctions froze Libya's foreign assets but excluded revenue from oil and natural gas and agricultural commodities and banned the sale to Libya of refinery or pipeline equipment but excluded oil production equipment. Under the sanctions Libya's refining capacity eroded. Libya's role on the international stage grew less provocative after UN sanctions were imposed.

In , Libya fulfilled one of the UNSCR requirements by surrendering two Libyans suspected in connection with the bombing for trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands. One of these suspects, Abdel Basset al-Megrahi, was found guilty; the other was acquitted. UN sanctions against Libya were subsequently suspended. In , Gaddafi paid a ransom reportedly worth tens of millions of dollars to Abu Sayyaf , a Filipino Islamist militancy, to release a number of kidnapped tourists. He presented it as an act of goodwill to Western countries; nevertheless the money helped the group to expand its operation.

In December , Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism, and Gaddafi made significant strides in normalizing relations with western nations. He received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April Libya responded in good faith to legal cases brought against it in U.

The U. In late , Libya was elected by the General Assembly to a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the — term. In , the General People's Congress approved the introduction of "purification laws" to be put into effect, punishing theft by the amputation of limbs, and fornication and adultery by flogging.

Throughout his long rule, Gaddafi had to defend his position against opposition and coup attempts, emerging both from the military and from the general population. He reacted to these threats on one hand by maintaining a careful balance of power between the forces in the country, and by brutal repression on the other. Gaddafi successfully balanced the various tribes of Libya one against the other by distributing his favours.


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To forestall a military coup, he deliberately weakened the Libyan Armed Forces by regularly rotating officers, relying instead on loyal elite troops such as his Revolutionary Guard Corps , the special-forces Khamis Brigade and his personal Amazonian Guard , even though emphasis on political loyalty tended, over the long run, to weaken the professionalism of his personal forces. This trend made the country vulnerable to dissension at a time of crisis, as happened during early The term "Green Terror" is used to describe campaigns of violence and intimidation against opponents of Gaddafi, particularly in reference to wave of oppression during Libya's cultural revolution , or to the wave of highly publicized hangings of regime opponents that began with the Execution of Al-Sadek Hamed Al-Shuwehdy.

Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of The surveillance took place in government, in factories, and in the education sector. Following an abortive attempt to replace English foreign language education with Russian, [99] in recent years English has been taught in Libyan schools from a primary level, and students have access to English-language media.

He kept us ignorant and blindfolded". During the late s, some exiled Libyans [ who? In early , Gaddafi warned opposition leaders to return home immediately or face "liquidation. It is the Libyan people's responsibility to liquidate such scums who are distorting Libya's image abroad. Gaddafi employed his network of diplomats and recruits to assassinate dozens of his critics around the world. Amnesty International listed at least twenty-five assassinations between and Gaddafi's agents were active in the U. After Libyan diplomats shot at 15 anti-Gaddafi protesters from inside the Libyan embassy's first floor and killed a British policewoman , the U.

Even the U. In , a Libyan agent attempted to assassinate dissident Faisal Zagallai , a doctoral student at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The bullets left Zagallai partially blinded. Gaddafi asserted in June that killings could be carried out even when the dissidents were on pilgrimage in the holy city of Mecca. In August , one Libyan plot was thwarted in Mecca.

There is indication that between the years of and , Libya's Gaddafi-era intelligence service had a partnership with western spy organizations including MI6 and the CIA , who voluntarily provided information on Libyan dissidents in the United States and Canada in exchange for using Libya as a base for extraordinary renditions. This was done despite Libya's history of murdering dissidents abroad, and with full knowledge of Libya's brutal mistreatment of detainees. In the s, Gaddafi's rule was threatened by militant Islamism.

In October , there was an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Gaddafi by elements of the Libyan army. In response, Gaddafi used repressive measures, using his personal Revolutionary Guard Corps to crush riots and Islamist activism during the s. Nevertheless, Cyrenaica between and was politically unstable, due to the tribal allegiances of the local troops. The novelist Idris Al-Mesmari was arrested hours after giving an interview with Al Jazeera about the police reaction to protests in Benghazi on 15 February. Inspiration for the unrest is attributed to the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt , connecting it with the wider Arab Spring.

Gaddafi's son, Khamis , controlled the well-armed Khamis Brigade and alleged to possess large number of mercenaries. The government in Tripoli had lost control of half of Libya by the end of February, [] [] but as of mid-September Gaddafi remained in control of several parts of Fezzan. On 21 September, the forces of NTC captured Sabha, the largest city of Fezzan, reducing the control of Gaddafi to limited and isolated areas.

Many nations condemned Gaddafi's government over its use of force against civilians. Several other nations allied with Gaddafi called the uprising and intervention a "plot" by Western powers to loot Libya's resources. The UN resolution authorised air-strikes against Libyan ground troops and warships that appeared to threaten civilians. Vice Admiral William E. More than "Tomahawk" cruise missiles were fired in an initial assault by U. The last government holdouts in Sirte finally fell to anti-Gaddafi fighters on 20 October , and, following the controversial death of Muammar Gaddafi , Libya was officially declared "liberated" on 23 October , ending 42 years of Gaddafi's leadership in Libya.

Political scientist Riadh Sidaoui suggested in October that Gaddafi "has created a great void for his exercise of power: there is no institution, no army, no electoral tradition in the country", and as a result, the period of transition would be difficult in Libya. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Coat of arms. Main article: Libyan—Egyptian War.

Libyan Arabic Berber Italian [26]. Teda Italian. No data. Data unavailable. Further information: Economy of Libya. See also: Islamic Legion. Main article: Libya and weapons of mass destruction. Main article: Foreign relations of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi. See also: Uganda—Tanzania War. See also: Active measures.

Play media. Further information: Human rights in Libya. Main articles: Libyan Civil War , military intervention in Libya , Libyan rebel coastal offensive , and Battle of Tripoli Countries that had permanent informal relations with the NTC, or which voted in favor of recognition at the UN, but had not granted official recognition.

Countries that said they would not recognise the NTC. Human rights portal Libya portal. Retrieved 14 August Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 24 July Crime and Society. Archived from the original on 7 August Libya in Western Foreign Policies, — Sky News. Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 25 October The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April Washington Post. The Independent. BBC News. Paris: P. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 15 September Archived from the original PDF on 22 June Retrieved Retrieved 9 June Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 27 February Middle East Quarterly.

Qadhafi's Libya. Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original PDF on 31 December Retrieved 8 January Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Mercenaries, Pirates and Sovereigns. London Review of Books. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 12 August Tahir Khalil of Jang Media Group. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 21 October Arms Control Association. BBC on 13 November Qaddafi, Terrorism, and the Origins of the U. Attack on Libya. New York: S. Retrieved 1 September Foreign Policy.

Retrieved 29 October Daily Times of Nigeria. Archived from the original on 17 June The Economist. Retrieved 17 July London: BBC News. Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 26 June Reuters UK. Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 3 February Russia Today. Libya: the struggle for survival. February Archived from the original on 1 March The Contemporary Review. CRS Report for Congress. Federation of American Scientists. United States Office of the Federal Register. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. The Daily Telegraph. John; Ronald Bruce 1 December Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire.

The Australian. The Weekly Standard. Political Science. University of Eastern Arkansas. Retrieved 7 July Human Rights in Developing Countries: Yearbook The Hague: Kluwer International. Archived from the original on 2 November US Library of Congress. Voice of America. Freedom House. Archived from the original PDF on 4 August Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 3 September Sydney Morning Herald.

Retrieved 4 September The Telegraph. The Libyan Paradox. Columbia University Press. Cordesman, Anthony H. Greenwood Publishing Group. The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 23 February The Times. Retrieved 25 February Qaddafi, speaking by telephone on state television yesterday, blamed the uprising against his year rule on 'drugged kids' and al-Qaeda. The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 June Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 24 February The Wall Street Journal. United Nations. Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 20 March Al Jazeera.

Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 11 November Outline Index. Muammar Gaddafi. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter CS1 French-language sources fr All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September CS1 errors: external links Webarchive template wayback links Articles with incomplete citations from October Pages with URL errors Use dmy dates from October Articles with Arabic-language external links Articles with Italian-language external links Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text Articles containing Arabic-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from August All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November Articles containing video clips.

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