Humangenetik - Anwendbarkeit, soziale Folgen und ethische Grenzen (German Edition)
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Reproduktionsmedizin , 18 5 , Medizinische Genetik 12, 3 In: Techniker Krankenkasse Hg. Bayreuther Gesundheitsforum am Frauenheilkunde plus 3 1, Fertility and Sterility 72 Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics Suppl2 Gesundheitspolitik 5 , Nr. Beck, L. Gesundheitskompetenz In: D. Sturma, B. Heinrichs Hrsg.
Metzler, Stuttgart In: Kuhn, J. Ein Praxisbuch. Stuttgart , S. In: Mohr, R. Perspektiven auf die Welt von morgen. Frankfurt am Main , S. In: Joerden, J. Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden , In: Frewer, A. In: Schumpelick, V. Individualisierte Medizin — Wunsch und Wirklichkeit. Herder, Freiburg,.
Einführung: Die ungeheuerliche Raumphilosophie von Peter Sloterdijk
Basel, Wien , In: Schliesky, U. Zur erforderlichen Integration des scheinbar Unvereinbaren. In: Katzenmeier, C. Springer, Heidelberg , Gustke, M. In: F. Siedentopf, M. David, J. Mabuse-Verlag Frankfurt am Main Baumeister, S. Mabuse-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main Geschichte, Ethik und Gesellschaft. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart , In: Ganten, D. In: Berghaus, H. In: Maio, G. Reichweite und Grenzen anthropologischer Argumente in der biomedizinischen Ethik. In: Dierks, C. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, , In: Checklisten in der klinischen Ethikberatung.
In: Nationaler Ethikrat Hg. Berlin , Schneider, S.
Zur Beziehung zwischen den ethischen und rechtlichen Betrachtungen in den beiden Teilprojekten. In: Honnefelder, L. In: Gethmann-Siefert, A. Band II: Studien zur medizinischen Ethik. In: David, M. Die moderne Hirnforschung und ihre Anwendung in der Medizin. In: Lauterbach, K. Schattauer, Stuttgart, New York , 2. In: Bender, H. September Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, New York et al.
Lanzerath, D. In: Gethmann, C. Abschlussbericht des Forschungsprojektes. Wildfeuer, A. In: Geth-mann, C. In: Dudenhausen, J. Heidelberg u. Begriff und Gegenstand. Die normative Funktion des Krankheits- und Behinderungsbegriffs. In: C. Honnefelder Hrsg. In: L. Rager Hrsg. Mit-Autorin von diversen Stellungnahmen und anderen Publikationen des Nationalen Ethikrates — BKiD Dr.
Beratungsnetzwerk Kinderwunsch Deutschland e. BKiD Prof. Versorgungsbereich ambulanter Versorgungssektor. Diese Leitlinie entspricht der Stufe: S2k. Konsensbasierte Empfehlung 1. Konsensbasiertes Statement 1. Konsensbasiertes Statement 2. Konsensbasierte Empfehlung 2. Eine gonadotoxische Wirkung ist nicht wahrscheinlich. Ovargewebe diskutiert werden. Konsensbasierte Empfehlung 4. Konsensbasiertes Statement 4. GnRH-Agonisten im Jugendalter ist bislang noch fraglich. Konsensbasierte Empfehlung 8.
Die Empfehlung soll mit der Patientin und der Familie besprochen werden. Dies soll vor Therapiebeginn stattfinden, wenn dieser um 2 Wochen verschoben werden kann. Konsensbasiertes Statement 8. Bei Transplantation des kryokonservierten Gewebes besteht die Gefahr der Transplantation von malignen Zellen.
Konsensbasiertes Statement 9. How does Europe PMC derive its citations network? Protein Interactions. Protein Families. Nucleotide Sequences. Functional Genomics Experiments. Protein Structures. Gene Ontology GO Terms. Data Citations. Proteomics Data. Menu Formats. Full Text. V] BVDP. Assessing the risk of possible infertility and the choice of method s for fertility preservation must be done by an interdisciplinary panel and discussed with the patient in good time before the start of oncologic therapy.
Methotrexate Fluorouracil Vincristine. Women scheduled to receive a potentially gonadotoxic dose of chemotherapeutic drugs must be informed about the risk of ovarian insufficiency and about methods to preserve fertility. The negative impact of the gonadal toxicity of chemotherapies increases with patient age. Whether women develop ovarian insufficiency depends on the radiation dose, the age when the patient was exposed to radiation and the volume of irradiated ovarian tissue.
Patients who are scheduled to receive radiotherapy which will also irradiate the anatomical area of the ovaries must be informed about the risk of ovarian damage and must be made aware of methods which could preserve their fertility. Irradiation of the uterus can lead to uterine and tubal sterility and to increased pregnancy risks such as preterm birth, miscarriage and lower birth weight of the infant.
Women receiving therapy with bevacizumab should be informed about the risk of ovarian insufficiency and about methods to preserve fertility. Patients who receive immunotherapy or targeted therapy should be informed about the unclear risk of ovarian insufficiency and about methods to preserve fertility. Data on gonadal toxicity of tamoxifen are limited and inconsistent; there are no data on the possible effects of aromatase inhibitors combined with GnRH agonists. The most important fertility-reducing effect of endocrine therapy used to treat breast cancer is the length of the treatment, as it postpones the time when the patient can have children to a stage in life when patient has reduced ovarian reserve.
The possibility of postponing or interrupting endocrine therapy may be discussed with the patient if this would allow her to have children early. Transposition of the ovaries out of the area which will be irradiated may reduce the risk of radiogenic ovarian insufficiency. If ovariopexy is performed, ovarian tissue may be harvested at the same time for cryopreservation. The data is still contradictory, so administering GnRH agonists as the only method for fertility protection is not sufficient. Because of the contradictory study results, it is currently not possible to evaluate the benefit of administering a GnRH agonist.
Depending on the underlying tumor entity, GnRH agonists may be offered as a fertility protection measure if the patient has been informed in detail. Cryopreservation of fertilized and unfertilized oocytes is an established technique in reproductive medicine which can be used before starting gonadotoxic therapy.
A protocol with the lowest possible risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome should be used for ovarian stimulation treatment to protect fertility. In contrast to the cryopreservation of fertilized oocytes, the cryopreservation of unfertilized oocytes is not associated with a significantly increased rate of malformations or developmental deficits in children. The cryopreservation of unfertilized oocytes must be additionally offered, even if the patient has a partner.
Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is an established method to restore fertility after receiving treatment for cancer. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue may be carried out at any time of the menstrual cycle and does not lead to any relevant delay in oncologic therapy. Ovarian tissue must be transplanted orthotopically, i. The risk of ovarian metastasis cannot be excluded for any type of tumor. The patient must be informed before harvesting the tissue about the possible risk of transferring malignant cells by transplanting the harvested ovarian tissue.
If the patient wishes to have children, the dose administered to the uterus must be kept as low as possible using the latest radiation planning and techniques. The patient must be offered combinations of different fertility-preserving methods e.
Every fertile woman with breast cancer who might wish to have children must receive counseling about ovarian toxicity and the available methods to protect fertility before starting any potentially gonadotoxic therapy. Patients with metastatic breast cancer must receive individualized information on fertility protection which must also take account of the prognosis of a more limited life expectancy. According to retrospective observational studies, pregnancy after treatment for breast cancer is not associated with a poorer prognosis with regard to the underlying disease.
Regional radiotherapy to treat breast cancer is not associated with reduced fertility. If the patient has been carefully informed about the potential risks, pausing anti-tumor endocrine therapy after a minimum of 2 years of therapy may be considered to allow the patient to have children, after which the patient would resume therapy. Lawrenz et al. Turan et al. Sigismondi et al. Takae et al. Dahhan et al. Oktay et al. Hormone stimulation for oocyte retrieval can be done in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving concomitant anti-hormone treatment e.
Before undergoing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, women should be offered the possibility of cryopreserving unfertilized and fertilized oocytes. Every fertile woman with sarcoma who may wish to have a child must be informed about the ovarian toxicity of treatment and the methods of preserving fertility before starting a potentially gonadotoxic therapy. There are no indications that pregnancy after treatment for sarcoma will result in a poorer prognosis. Patients with sarcoma should be offered cryopreservation of ovarian tissue to protect fertility.
After the onset of puberty, patients with sarcoma should be informed about the possibility of cryopreserving oocytes, if the start of oncologic therapy can be postponed by at least 2 weeks. A GnRH agonist can be administered to patients with sarcoma during gonadotoxic therapy. Every fertile woman with colorectal cancer who may wish to have a child must be informed about the ovarian toxicity of treatment and methods of preserving fertility before starting a potentially gonadotoxic therapy. According to case reports, pregnancy after rectal cancer is not associated with a poorer oncologic prognosis.
Chemotherapeutic treatment of colorectal cancer with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin is reported to have a low risk of ovarian insufficiency. Patients with colorectal cancer should be offered cryopreservation of ovarian tissue to protect fertility. After the onset of puberty, patients with colorectal cancer should be informed about the possibility of cryopreserving oocytes if the start of oncologic therapy can be postponed by at least 2 weeks.
A GnRH agonist can be administered to patients with colorectal cancer during gonadotoxic therapy.
With lymphomas, the risk of primary ovarian insufficiency depends on the chemotherapy protocol used. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue to protect fertility must be offered to patients with lymphoma who are expected to have a high risk of premature ovarian insufficiency from oncologic therapy.
After the onset of puberty, patients with lymphoma should be informed about the possibility of cryopreserving oocytes if the start of oncologic therapy can be postponed by at least 2 weeks. A GnRH agonist can be administered to patients with lymphoma during gonadotoxic therapy. The risk of infertility after treatment for ALL depends on the protocol used for treatment. Depending on the dose, cranial irradiation during treatment for ALL can lead to treatable impairment of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis.
Patients with ALL who have a high risk of POI from therapy and who cannot postpone their gonadotoxic therapy can be offered the option of cryopreserving ovarian tissue to protect their fertility. The risk of tumor recurrence after autotransplantation of ovarian tissue is considered to be high in patients with ALL, and autotransplantation is therefore not recommended. After the onset of puberty, patients with ALL should be informed about the possibility of cryopreserving oocytes if the start of oncologic therapy can be postponed by at least 2 weeks.
The risk of infertility after treatment for AML depends on the protocol used for treatment. Patients with AML who have a high risk of POI from therapy and who cannot postpone their gonadotoxic therapy can be offered the option of cryopreserving ovarian tissue to protect their fertility.
The risk of tumor recurrence after autotransplantation of ovarian tissue is considered to be high in patients with AML, and autotransplantation is therefore not recommended. After the onset of puberty, patients with AML should be informed about the possibility of cryopreserving oocytes if the start of oncologic therapy can be postponed by at least 2 weeks. The risk of ovarian insufficiency following the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors TKI is unclear, with TKI reported to have a teratogenic potential.
The risk of disease recurrence after autotransplantation of ovarian tissue is considered to be high in patients with CML, and autotransplantation is therefore not recommended. After the onset of puberty and before starting conditioning for stem cell transplantation, patients should be informed about the possibility of cryopreserving oocytes if the start of oncologic therapy can be postponed by at least 2 weeks. Patients can be offered the option of cryopreserving ovarian tissue to protect fertility before undergoing stem cell transplantation. The efficacy of administering drugs for fertility protection e.
Depending on the expected radiation dose administered to the ovary, the possibility of ovariopexy must be discussed during the tumor conference. After puberty patients can undergo stimulation treatment to cryopreserve oocytes. Over recent years, agricultural biotechnology policy in member countries as well as at the EU level had a difficult time. Problems arose from different interpretations of the issue at stake, from food scandals and from public mobilisation pointing at legitimacy deficits. In a repair attempt, the precautionary principle was adopted as a key policy concept. At the same time, the range of permissible arguments was extended and more and different stakeholders were allowed to have their say.
Considering three long-lasting problems of biotechnology policy, the paper investigates two understandings of precaution and their fitting with current approaches and discusses whether or not there has been a sustainable shift in biotechnology policy over recent years.
Nature Biotechnology vol. The European sample survey of public perceptions of biotechnology reveals widespread opposition to genetically modified GM food in much of Europe, but public attitudes to medical and environmental applications remain positive. In: Schleissing, Stefan Hrsg. Torgersen, Helge Neuroenhancement — k ein Thema?. ITA-manu:script Dennoch wurden in den letzten Jahren insbesondere individuelle und gesellschaftliche Folgen einer hypothetischen Anwendung bearbeitet, wobei man — Realisierungsprobleme hintanstellend — implizit von wachsender Verbreitung ausging.
Making Sense of Synthetic Biology. In: Scherz, C. Bericht von der 6.
Konferenz des Netzwerks TA und der In past technology controversies, aspects such as risk or ethics have played a major role, apart from economic arguments. Public debates on agricultural biotechnology or biomedicine differed in the dominant aspect they addressed, respectively.
This article specifies such aspects as discursive frames being tacit agreements over what is relevant and which arguments count. It investigates the role of frames in past debates and the relation between frames and issues relevant for technology governance such as policy advice, public participation and the political legitimation of decisions. For a newly emerging technology such as synthetic biology, the framing of a debate to come is often expected to follow patterns known from previous debates, and to influence governance in a foreseeable way. However, new frames might emerge that could change both the debate on and the governance of emerging technologies.
Torgersen, Helge TA als hermeneutische Unternehmung. In: Weitze, M. In: Schmidt, Markus Hrsg. Kollek, R. Die Systembiologie zielt darauf ab, biologische Prozesse und Organismen in ihrer Gesamtheit zu verstehen. Auch ihre normativen, sozialen und rechtlichen Implikationen sind weitgehend unerforscht. Participatory Technology Assessment PTA is said to increase democratic legitimacy, take up lay knowledge and improve technological solutions.
As a conclusion, governance styles would have to change before PTA was to become more than a laboratory experiment. It describes the framing of the field of Synthetic Biology and its scientific-technological context, describes how particular visions guide the field and flags up streams of development. Ontological and ethical aspects and implications such as risk mitigation, benefit distribution and governance are discussed, as well as conceptualisations of living machines and artificial life.
Governance und TA von Emerging Technologies.
- It had to be.
- Institut für Ethik und Geschichte der Medizin - Mitarbeiter/-innen;
In: Aichholzer, G. Welche Rolle spielt TA dabei? Zweitens ist der Kontext, in dem Technologien entwickelt werden, von PR-Strategien durchsetzt, die eine entsprechende Analyse erfordern. In: Lavino, J. The complete sequencing of the human genome marked the onset of the postgenomics era that was accompanied by the establishment of a variety of science branches, such as functional genomics, proteomics, and systems biology.
In our study we investigated if and how these changes were perceived and communicated by different stakeholders scientists, teachers, NGO, journalists, public relation officials and the general public. Finally we analysed what kind of information channels were used by the different stakeholders. Our results show that complexity is not understood as a decrease in controllability, and that the sequencing of the Human Genome does not seem to have specifically increased perceived complexity in gene science.
We also found that some stakeholders, especially scientists, NGOs and science journalists, have a somehow distorted view of their own capabilities and status among other stakeholders. This misperception could be a consequence of the different importance assigned to scientific, political, social, ethical and ecological aspects, and unless made transparent will hamper any communication effort between these stakeholders.
- Acqua passata (Italian Edition);
- Inked and Hard.
- How Develop the Memory - Advanced Systems;
- GH - Einführung: Die ungeheuerliche Raumphilosophie von Peter Sloterdijk.
- Mau-ow, Return of the Rats, The Miracle of the Carp (Zvonek 08, Feline Intelligence, Czech Republic Book 2).
Hampel, J. In: Feindt, P. In: Bogner, A. GAIA, Bd. Ganguli-Mitra, A. In: Busch, R. Torgersen, Helge Gentechnik - Fluch oder Segen?. F; Torgersen, H The contemporary message of monsters. Torgersen, Helge Agriculture biotechnology in Europe at the crossroads. Torgersen, Helge Wozu Umfragen? Dezember 3 , S. Torgersen, Helge Expertise und Politik im Widerstreit? Entscheiden unter dem Vorsorgeprinzip. It offers an analytical scheme to conceptualise the interaction between public opinion, interest representing organisations, the media and the political system.
The model distinguishes structural elements, functional elements and processes. Structural elements are the public with sub-publics and representational fields, the regulatory system with its institutions, intermediary organisations representing interests and bridging the gap between the public s and the regulatory system, the regulatory space and the media that mirror and participate in interest conflicts. Functional elements are resources, which enable intermediary organisations to convey interests to regulation, and filters that prevent information overflow within regulatory institutions: the gate as a formal function selects information according to statutory criteria, detectors according to usefulness for the institution.
Processes described are the movement of issue fields due to re-interpretation; resonance, the tuning-in on issue interpretation among different actors; mobilisation, the generation of political pressure through resonance; and policy change through the abolishment of established interest and actor equilibrium due to mobilisation and ensuing gate failure. The model is applied to the example of biotechnology conflicts.
Bellucci, S. Grabner, P. Falkner, G. Peissl, W. Neue Perspektiven auf problemorientierte Forschung und Politikberatung. In Reihe: Wissenschafts- und Technikforschung, hrsg. Bora, A. Heute gelten sie als Normalfall, sowohl im Forschungsbetrieb wie auch in der wissenschaftlichen Politikberatung.
Der Fokus des Bandes liegt auf der empirischen Untersuchung dieser Praxisfelder aus der Perspektive der Wissenschafts- und Technikforschung. Bogner, Alexander; Torgersen, Helge Hrsg. Ambivalenzen der Beziehung von Wissenschaft und Politik. Daele, Berlin, S. Joss, London, T. Nielsen, Oslo, F. Seifert und H. Torgersen, Wien. Report on the horizon scanning study Deliverable 1. Deliverable 2. Digitalization, automation and increasing robotisation in health care, industry and beyond, coupled with the advent of platform-based competitive mediation of work crowdworking — all impact on the future of work and labour.
The associated challenges to the labour market, working conditions, wages, and the blurring boundary between private and professional life are the topic of intensive political and societal debate in many countries. Just take the conflicts surrounding Uber and AirBnB and their entry to traditional markets, as well as the vision of the so-called Internet of Things or cyber-physical systems, as the most prominent issues.
Technology assessment TA always tries to be at the forefront of such debates. It is therefore not surprising that the member institutions of the European Parliamentary Technology Assessment EPTA network have already devoted a number of projects on labour issues related to digitalisation.
WWU Münster > Religion & Politics > Siep, Ludwig, Prof. Dr. phil.
The Annual EPTA Conference 'The future of labour in the digital era: Ubiquitous computing, virtual platforms and real-time production' was thus devoted to this timely and exciting topic. This report continues a series of similar reports compiled by the respective presidency of the EPTA network. As in previous years, it is a collection of contributions written from the perspectives of all full and associate members of EPTA. This report also includes a general introduction and a synthesis that gives the reader a compact summary of the state-of-the-art in the EPTA countries.
After the conference it has been amended to reflect the lively debates and to include the preliminary results of the conference debates. Deliverable Report 4. It gives a first overview of the state of establishment and institutionalisation of systems biology in Austria in The most relevant institutions are enlisted along three categories and shortly characterised. Overall, the state of establishment of systems biology is much less advanced than in Germany, the United Kingdom or Switzerland.
It takes place on a smaller scale and is driven by a more cautious attitude. Also, it takes place in a more diverse and fragmented mode. Only a few, small institutes carry the label in their name and systems biology is at least as a label almost absent in university curricula. Moreover, general problems relating to such an early onwards assessment of the state of a new scientific field are discussed in the introduction. London School of Economics: London. The latest Eurobarometer survey on the Life Sciences and Biotechnology, based on representative samples from 32 European countries and conducted in February , points to a new era in the relations between science and society.
While entrenched views about GM food are still evident, the crisis of confidence in technology and regulation that characterised the s — a result of BSE, contaminated blood and other perceived regulatory failures — is no longer the dominant perspective. In we see a greater focus on technologies themselves: are they safe?
Are they useful? And are there 'technolite' alternatives with more acceptable ethical-moral implications? Europeans are also increasingly concerned about energy and sustainability. There is no rejection of the impetus towards innovation: Europeans are in favour of appropriate regulation to balance the market, and wish to be involved in decisions about new technologies when social values are at stake. Non-scientific factors such as general attitudes, media coverage and political support influence the public image of a scientific-technological field — but how does a new field find its image?
To shed light on relevant processes, COSY did investigations in three areas: public attitude formation, media reporting and program funding. Having received increased media attention recently, it provides a living communication experiment: prone to elicit attitudes, they are not yet determined. To find out how lay people cope with challenging insights from SB using their everyday knowledge, we performed an experiment shaped after the flow of information as it actually occurs: scientists wrote press releases on their work, Austrian journalists made newspaper articles thereof and focus groups of lay people summarised and discussed them.
Journalists and scientists were then confronted with the outcome. The results show that popularisation and framing start early; for example, press releases tended to omit technical terms and emphasised benefits.